EFFECT OF CALCIUM & BORON APPLICATION ON QUALITY
AND YIELD OF APPLE UNDER TEMPERATE CONDITIONS OF
(a)Khurshid A. Sofi, (a*)Irshad Hassan, (b)Mushtaq A. Bhat, cIrfan Bisati, (d)Khursheed A. Dar, (c)M.H. Chesti, (a)Javid,
A. Sofi, (a)Ashraf, A.Wani, (a)Alamgir. A. Dar and (a)Ishrat Jan
(a*)Research Centre for Residue and Quality Analysis, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Shalimar, Srinagar 190025 J&K (India).
(b)Division of plant pathology, SKUAST-K, Shalimar , Srinagar- 190025, J&K (India).
(c)Directorate of extension, SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Srinagar -190025, J&K (India).
(d)MLRI, Manasbal,SKUAST-K,Bandipora, Kashmir-190025, J&K (India).
(*)Corresponding author’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A field experiment was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra- Bandipora, SKUAST- Kashmir on Apple (var. Red Delicious) in the farmers field under temperate conditions with four treatments of Calcium nitrate @0g/tree (Control), 250 g/tree, 500 g/tree and 750 g/tree and four treatments of Granubor Natur @ 0 g/tree (Control), 50 gm/tree, 75g/tree and 100 g/tree for supply of calcium and boron respectively. Fruit samples were taken immediately to the laboratory after harvest and stored in a
refrigerator at 4°C until analyses. Ten fruits from each replicate were randomly taken for determining the physical and chemical characteristics. The fruit samples were weighed in a pan balance and the mean weight of single fruit was expressed in grams per fruit. The length of all the ten fruits in a sample were recorded individually with the help of Verniers Caliper and the results were
expressed average length in centimeters. Also, fruit diameter of ten fruits was recorded with the help of Verniers Caliper and expressed in centimeters on average basis. Fruit length was divided with the corresponding fruit diameter to obtain length diameter ratio. The yield was estimated by multiplying total number of fruits per tree with the average fruit weight of ten randomly selected fruits. The yield was expressed in kilograms per tree. ( read in full in original Document )
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Calcium in the form Calcium Nitrate (CaNO3) @ 500g/tree and Boron in the form of Granubor Natur @ 100g/tree applied in the farmer’s field resulted in maximum fruit length (4.64 cm) during both the years. Increasing Calcium Nitrate concentration from 500 to 750 g resulted in significant decline in fruit length. However, fruit length was significantly higher compared to the treatment where no calcium and boron was applied. Application of calcium nitrate and Granubor Natur in the present studies revealed pronounced effect on fruit size. The pre-harvest treatment with both the chemicals at lowest concentration produced
significantly larger fruits in size in comparison to fruits treated with higher concentration. Mir et al. (1996) and Kilany and Kilany (1991) also observed significant change in fruit size i.e., length and diameter due to calcium chloride and boric acid treatment on apple. Similar results have been reported by Mehta and Jindal (1986) in plum and Wani (1997) in peach. Calcium is required for cell elongation and cell division (Burstrom, 1968), There is now evidence that auxin induced H+ secretion of meristematic cells is related to the presence of Ca2+ (Marme, 1983). However, the reduced fruit size in case of higher concentration of calcium chloride might be due to the reason that at higher levels of calcium, cell wall becomes too rigid there by, inhibiting cell elongation (Uhstrom, 1969). Boron is also known to result in an increase in calcium concentration which might have
augmented the rigidity of cell wall. Due to significant interaction effect of calcium nitrate and Granubor Natur it was noticed that calcium nitrate @500 g/tree and Granubor Natur @ 100 g/tree recorded the highest fruit diameter (4.76 cm) while as control
treatment registered the lowest fruit diameter (4.20cm However, these treatments were at par with each other. Calcium Nitrate (CaNO3) @ 500 g/tree and Granubor Natur @ 100 g/tree recorded length: diameter ratio of 0.97 whereas, control fruits recorded length diameter ratio of (0.93) .The highest fruit weight of 154.85g was recorded when trees received combined application of 500 g calcium nitrate with 100 g Granubor Natur respectively.. The lowest fruit weight of 118.92 g was observed under
control .Calcium nitrate and Granubor Natur treatment resulted in heavier fruits as compared to control. With
further increase in the concentration of calcium nitrate (750 g) ; there was a decline in fruit weight . Striking effect of calcium and boron in enhancement of fruit weight and volume has been widely established (Mehta and Jindal 1986; Mir et al. 1996; Kumar et al.,2003 and Gautam et al. 1981).Out of various chemical treatment combinations, calcium nitrate at 500g plus Granubor Natur at 100g resulted in the highest fruit yield of 155.60 kg/tree. The lowest fruit yield 118.25 kg/ tree was observed when trees received no calcium and boron.(control treatment). Calcium & boron application on quality and yield of apple under temperate conditions of Kashmir 66 Present studies reveal a significant difference with the treatments of calcium nitrate and Granubor Natur in terms
of their effect on fruit yield and physico- chemical composition of apple fruit over the traditional system of
orcharding .With CaNO3@ 500 g/tree & boron in the form of Granubor Natur @ 100 gms/tree yield enhanced to the
extent of 31.59% which decreased with further increase in calcium nitrate concentration. Striking effect of calcium nitrate and boron in enhancement of yield in apple has been well documented by various workers. (Bagdsarashvili and Tsutsunashuli 1980, Dube et al.,
1973; Koul and Muthoo, 1999 and Bhat et al. (1997). Azad (1999) obtained higher yield in apple with combined application of calcium nitrate plus Granubor Natur in comparison to untreated fruits and it is established that a positive correlation exists between boron and tree vigour (Lidster et-al 1975). Improved yields have also been reported with foliar boron sprays in apple cv. Cox’s
Orange Pippin (Shorrocks et al., 1980). Highest T.S.S content was attained with combined application of calcium nitrate at 500g and Granubor Natur at 100g to the tune of 11.30%. The minimum T.S.S recorded was 10.10% under control. However, TSS decreased with further increase in concentration of calcium nitrate. Higher TSS induced by chemical treatments viz. calcium nitrate and
Granubor Natur might be due to lesser utilization of sugars in metabolic processes as a result of reduced respiration (Gupta et al., 1980). The reduced rate of respiration could also cause accumulation of organic acids which have oxidized at slower rate. An examination of data shows that lowest acidity was recorded when combined application of calcium nitrate and Granubor
Natur was applied at 500g and 100g. Maximum acidity of 0.215% was obtained under control during the study.
Acidity decreased with further increase in calcium nitrate and Granubor Natur. The results were in accordance with
those of Bhat and Farooqui (2004) ;who reported that acidity of apple cv. Red Delicious decreased with combined application of calcium chloride and boric acid. The results of the present study indicate that interaction effect of calcium nitrate and Granubor Natur revealed that both chemical treatments resulted in significantly higher sugars .This treatment interaction was superior in
comparison to other treatments and the values for total sugar content observed were 8.05% .The lowest total sugar
of 7.21 was noticed under control. Increase in higher content with the application of calcium nitrate and Granubor Natur was also reported by Sachdeva (1985) and Pant and Tewari (1987) in apple. Increase in higher content with the application of calcium nitrate and Granubor Natur was also reported by Sachdeva (1985) and Pant and Tewari (1987) in apple. Increase in sugar content
may be attributed to translocation of sugars which is enhanced with boron (Davenport and Peryea, 1990). The increase in sugar was directly related to the decrease in acidity as well. Increase in sugar content may be attributed to translocation of sugars which is enhanced with boron (Davenport and Peryea, 1990). The increase in sugar was directly related to the decrease in acidity as well.
From the studies; it may be concluded that fruit chemometric properties of apple like fruit size, TSS and total sugars can be improved significantly by soil fertilization of calcium nitrate and Granubor .Accordingly, Calcium in the form of CaNO3 @ 500 g/tree & Boron in the form Granubor Natur @ 100 g/tree proved most beneficial in enhancement of fruit physic-chemical quality. Moreover, problems of fruit drop, under size fruits, poor colour & lower yields can be redressed as seen during the conduct
of this on farm trial (OFT).
The authors are highly thankful to the orchardist (Mr. Altaf Ahmad Parray, Putshahi, Bandipora) and SKUASTK authorities to enable us to conduct the trial.