APPLE CODLING MOTH
The adults of apple codling moth are about half to one inch long. The larvae are white to light pink with a dark brown head. Codling moth overwinters as larvae under bark and in soil or debris around the base of tree. The larva pupates in early spring and emerges as adult moths from mid March to early April. These moths remains active only few hors before and after sunset. The females lay their eggs on fruits, leaves and spurs. Each female can lay 30-50 eggs after mating. The larvae bore into the fruit causing the damage and after completing the boring these insects drop from the trees to search for a pupation site. After finding appropriate site in soil tree debris adults emerge from the tree debris and complete their life cycle.
Codling moth penetrates by boring into the fruit and making a tunnel. This results in surface stings or holes in the fruit with substances of their excreta. Hence this damage allows fungi and bacteria to enter into the fruit causing fruit rot during storage. The larvae may enter the fruit from the sides, stem end or calyx end. Calyx entries are difficult to detect, so when the fruit is cut and opened the tunnel and feeding damage can be seen.
It is very important that the fruit found infested is not left on the trees at any time during the growing season. The infested fruit found while thinning should be removed and destroyed. The tree debris should be cleared as they find their shelter near the tree debris. Codling moth caterpillars can only be controlled on apple with insecticides before they enter the fruits. Chemical spraying of insecticides i.e. Cypermethrin @ 1 ml/ litre of water and Chloropyriphos @ 1.5 ml/ litre of water as per the rate of infestation is helpful to control the codling moth insect during peak period .